Mazes and Labyrinths: A General Account of their History and Development

Mazes and Labyrinths: A General Account of their History and Development

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  • Author: William Henry Matthews
  • Publisher: Library of Alexandria
  • ISBN: 1465612211
  • Category : Labyrinths
  • Languages : en
  • Pages : 253

The hedge-maze, which is the only type with which most of us have a first-hand acquaintance, is generally felt to be a survival of a romantic age, even though we esteem its function as nothing higher than that of a playground for children. Many a tender intrigue has been woven around its dark yew alleys. Mr. Compton Mackenzie, for example, introduces it most effectively as a lovers' rendezvous in "The Passionate Elopement," and no doubt the readers of romantic literature will recall other instances of a like nature. The story of fair Rosamond's Bower is one which will leap to the mind in this connection. This type of maze alone is worth more than a passing thought, but it is far from being the only, or even the most interesting, development of the labyrinth idea. What is the difference, it may be asked, between a maze and a labyrinth? The answer is, little or none. Some writers seem to prefer to apply the word "maze" to hedge-mazes only, using the word "labyrinth" to denote the structures described by the writers of antiquity, or as a general term for any confusing arrangement of paths. Others, again, show a tendency to restrict the application of the term "maze" to cases in which the idea of a puzzle is involved. It would certainly seem somewhat inappropriate to talk of "the Cretan Maze" or "the Hampton Court Labyrinth," but, generally speaking, we may use the words interchangeably, regarding "maze" as merely the northern equivalent of the classic "labyrinth." Both words have come to signify a complex path of some kind, but when we press for a closer definition we encounter difficulties. We cannot, for instance, say that it is "a tortuous branched path designed to baffle or deceive those who attempt to find the goal to which it leads," for, though that description holds good in some cases, it ignores the many cases in which there is only one path, without branches, and therefore no intent to baffle or mislead, and others again in which there is no definite "goal." We cannot say that it is a winding path "bounded by walls or hedges," for in many instances there are neither walls nor hedges. One of the most famous labyrinths, for example, consisted chiefly of a vast and complicated series of rooms and columns. In fact, we shall find it convenient to leave the question of the definition of the words, and also that of their origin, until we have examined the various examples that exist or are known to have existed.


Mazes and Labyrinths

Mazes and Labyrinths

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  • Author: W. H. Matthews
  • Publisher: Dover Publications
  • ISBN: 9780486226149
  • Category : Games & Activities
  • Languages : en
  • Pages : 336

Ever since Herodotus stood in awe before the Great Labyrinth of Egypt and its 3,000 rooms, men have been fascinated by labyrinthine puzzles, constructions, and mazes. This book explores the subject in full, with a complete illustrated account of labyrinths and mazes of all kinds, from earliest times to the present. There are labyrinths that consist entirely of rooms and columns, like the Egyptian Labyrinth itself. There are the labyrinths of ancient history and of myth, such as the celebrated Cretan maze in which Theseus slew the Minotaur. There are labyrinths constructed of caverns, those built to protect tombs, and those designed to guard treasures. Labyrinthine patterns have been used in gardens (such as the famous Hampton Court maze), embossed on coins, employed as emblems of royalty, made to represent allegories, built of stones, embedded into the pavements of early churches, and made into toys. We learn about all of them — all that is known, for mystery seems an inescapable part of the story of the labyrinth. With devoted scholarship and a nice appreciation for what he terms “the lure of the labyrinth,” the author takes us through accounts of the ancient mazes, the “meanders” of Greek and Roman times, theories on the meaning of church labyrinths, the “mizmaze,” turf mazes and their origins, the floral labyrinth, the hedge maze, examples in stones and carved on rocks, links between labyrinths and magic, maze etymology, hints on maze design and principles of solution, the labyrinth in literature, the labyrinth in strange places, mirror mazes, and even a verbal labyrinth. All important or exceptional examples are illustrated. This is a book for anyone who is intrigued by puzzles or beguiled by mysteries, a book for the historian, the mathematician, the student, the lover of the classic, and all those who enjoy reading the product of a cultivated mind dwelling on a subject that touches much of our cultural and artistic heritage.


Mazes and Labyrinths a General Account of Their History and Development

Mazes and Labyrinths a General Account of Their History and Development

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  • Author: Matthews W H
  • Publisher: Hardpress Publishing
  • ISBN: 9781318094578
  • Category :
  • Languages : en
  • Pages : 422

Unlike some other reproductions of classic texts (1) We have not used OCR(Optical Character Recognition), as this leads to bad quality books with introduced typos. (2) In books where there are images such as portraits, maps, sketches etc We have endeavoured to keep the quality of these images, so they represent accurately the original artefact. Although occasionally there may be certain imperfections with these old texts, we feel they deserve to be made available for future generations to enjoy.


Mazes and Labyrinths. A General Account of Their History and Development ... With Illustrations [and a Bibliography.].

Mazes and Labyrinths. A General Account of Their History and Development ... With Illustrations [and a Bibliography.].

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  • Author: William Henry MATTHEWS (of Ruislip, Middlesex.)
  • Publisher:
  • ISBN:
  • Category :
  • Languages : en
  • Pages : 253


Psalm Culture and Early Modern English Literature

Psalm Culture and Early Modern English Literature

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  • Author: Hannibal Hamlin
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 9780521832700
  • Category : Literary Criticism
  • Languages : en
  • Pages : 289

Publisher Description


Ringleaders of Redemption

Ringleaders of Redemption

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  • Author: Kathryn Dickason
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN: 0197527272
  • Category : Performing Arts
  • Languages : en
  • Pages : 392

In popular thought, Christianity is often figured as being opposed to dance. Conventional scholarship traces this controversy back to the Middle Ages. Throughout the medieval era, the Latin Church denounced and prohibited dancing in religious and secular realms, often aligning it with demonic intervention, lust, pride, and sacrilege. Historical sources, however, suggest that medieval dance was a complex and ambivalent phenomenon. During the High and Late Middle Ages, Western theologians, liturgists, and mystics not only tolerated dance; they transformed it into a dynamic component of religious thought and practice. This book investigates how dance became a legitimate form of devotion in Christian culture. Sacred dance functioned to gloss scripture, frame spiritual experience, and imagine the afterlife. Invoking numerous manuscript and visual sources (biblical commentaries, sermons, saints' lives, ecclesiastical statutes, mystical treatises, vernacular literature, and iconography), this book highlights how medieval dance helped shape religious identity and social stratification. Moreover, this book shows the political dimension of dance, which worked in the service of Christendom, conversion, and social cohesion. In Ringleaders of Redemption, Kathryn Dickason reveals a long tradition of sacred dance in Christianity, one that the professionalization and secularization of Renaissance dance obscured, and one that the Reformation silenced and suppressed.


The Gordion Wooden Objects, Volume 1 The Furniture from Tumulus MM (2 vols)

The Gordion Wooden Objects, Volume 1 The Furniture from Tumulus MM (2 vols)

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  • Author: Elizabeth Simpson
  • Publisher: BRILL
  • ISBN: 9047442865
  • Category : History
  • Languages : en
  • Pages : 602

Volume I of The Gordion Wooden Objects is a study of fifteen pieces of furniture from the largest tomb at Gordion (Tumulus MM), Turkey. These spectacular works date to the eighth century BC and are among the most important wooden finds excavated from the ancient Near East.


A History of Religious Ideas, Volume 1

A History of Religious Ideas, Volume 1

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  • Author: Mircea Eliade
  • Publisher: University of Chicago Press
  • ISBN: 022614769X
  • Category : Religion
  • Languages : en
  • Pages : 510

“Everyone who cares about the human adventure will find new information and new angles of vision.”—Martin E. Marty, The New York Times Book Review This extraordinary work delves into the subject of religion in the prehistoric and ancient worlds—humankind’s earliest quests for meaning. From Neanderthal burials to the mythology of the Iron Age, to the religions of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Israel, India, and beyond, it offers both an appreciation of the wide-ranging diversity of religious expression—and a consideration of the fundamental unity of religious phenomena. “Will arouse the interest of all historians of western religion, since it includes chapters on the religions of Canaan and Israel. However, the book must be read cover to cover if one wants to grasp the significance of its gigantic historical scope.”—Church History


Reinforcement Learning

Reinforcement Learning

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  • Author: Marco Wiering
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 3642276458
  • Category : Technology & Engineering
  • Languages : en
  • Pages : 638

Reinforcement learning encompasses both a science of adaptive behavior of rational beings in uncertain environments and a computational methodology for finding optimal behaviors for challenging problems in control, optimization and adaptive behavior of intelligent agents. As a field, reinforcement learning has progressed tremendously in the past decade. The main goal of this book is to present an up-to-date series of survey articles on the main contemporary sub-fields of reinforcement learning. This includes surveys on partially observable environments, hierarchical task decompositions, relational knowledge representation and predictive state representations. Furthermore, topics such as transfer, evolutionary methods and continuous spaces in reinforcement learning are surveyed. In addition, several chapters review reinforcement learning methods in robotics, in games, and in computational neuroscience. In total seventeen different subfields are presented by mostly young experts in those areas, and together they truly represent a state-of-the-art of current reinforcement learning research. Marco Wiering works at the artificial intelligence department of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. He has published extensively on various reinforcement learning topics. Martijn van Otterlo works in the cognitive artificial intelligence group at the Radboud University Nijmegen in The Netherlands. He has mainly focused on expressive knowledge representation in reinforcement learning settings.


Rome Re-Imagined

Rome Re-Imagined

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  • Author: Louis I. Hamilton
  • Publisher: BRILL
  • ISBN: 9004225285
  • Category : History
  • Languages : en
  • Pages : 159

This collection examines the image of Rome through Arabic, Greek, Hebrew, Latin, and Persian descriptions of the eternal city. Placing the twelfth-century renaissance into a Mediterranean context. The city of Rome is revealed as a multi-vocal object of desire and a contested ideal.